Liechtenstein – Social Media Marketing – Content Marketing -Marketingportal.li

Liechtenstein – Social Media Marketing – Content Marketing -Marketingportal.li

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Die PR- und Pressefibel

Die PR- und Pressefibel

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Kobo – eBooks – Organisation armée secrète

Organisation armée secrète
Jean-Jacques Susini
Pierre Lagaillarde
Raoul Salan
Edmond Jouhaud
Yves Godard (officier)
Jean-Claude Perez (OAS)
Front Algérie française
Algérie française
Front de libération nationale (Algérie)
Barbouze
Commandant Azzedine
André Zeller
Maurice Challe
Putsch des généraux
Jean-Pierre Chevènement
Albert Dovecar
1er régiment étranger de parachutistes
Légion étrangère
Claude Piegts
Joseph Katz
Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry
Antoine Argoud
Georges Bidault
Hélie de Saint Marc
Jacques Soustelle
Roger Degueldre
Joseph Ortiz
Pierre Chateau-Jobert
Jacques Foccart

L’Organisation armée secrète, ou Organisation de l’armée secrète, surtout connue à travers le sigle OAS, est une organisation politico-militaire clandestine française, créée le 11 février 1961 pour la défense de la présence française en Algérie par tous les moyens, y compris le terrorisme à grande échelle.

Elle est créée à Madrid, un an après l’échec de la semaine des barricades, alors que le gouvernement français souhaite manifestement se désengager en Algérie, lors d’une rencontre entre deux activistes importants, Jean-Jacques Susini et Pierre Lagaillarde, ralliant par la suite des militaires de haut rang, notamment le général Raoul Salan.

Le sigle « OAS » fait volontairement référence à l’Armée secrète de la Résistance. Il apparaît sur les murs d’Alger le 16 mars 1961, et se répand ensuite en Algérie et en métropole, lié à divers slogans : « L’Algérie est française et le restera », « OAS vaincra », « l’OAS frappe où elle veut et quand elle veut », etc.

Sur le plan pratique, il ne s’agit pas d’une organisation centralisée unifiée ; d’une façon très générale, elle est divisée en trois branches plus ou moins indépendantes, parfois rivales : l’« OAS Madrid », l’« OAS Alger » et l’« OAS Métro »

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Kobo – eBooks – Stalin Biographie

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Wenn der Leser diese Buch zuschlägt, wird er wahrscheinlich sagen: „ Vieles das ich über Stalin zu wissen glaubte, sind also Lügen. “

Dieses Buch ist keine Biographie Stalins. Seine Absicht ist, den gegen Stalin vorgebrachten Angriffen gegenüberzutreten: Das "Testament Lenins", die Zwangskollektivierung, die alles erstickende Bürokratie, die Beseitigung der alten bolschewistischen Garde, die großen Säuberungsaktionen, die gewaltsame Industrialisierung, das geheime Einverständnis zwischen Stalin und Hitler, Stalins Unfähigkeit in Fragen des Krieges usw.: Wir sind ans Werk gegangen, gewisse "große Wahrheiten" über Stalin aufzuzeigen.
"Wahrheiten", die tausendmal in den Zeitungen, im Geschichtsunterricht, in den Interviews in einigen Sätzen zusammengefaßt wurden und die sozusagen ins Unterbewußtsein eingedrungen sind.
"Aber wie kann es denn möglich sein", sagte uns ein Freund, "einen Mann wie Stalin zu verteidigen?"
In seiner Frage lag Überraschung und Empörung. Sie erinnerte mich an das, was einst ein alter kommunistischer Arbeiter zu mir sagte. Er erzählte mir von 1956, als Chruschtschow seinen berühmten Geheimbericht verlesen hatte. Da gab es in der Kommunistischen Partei stürmische Diskussionen. An einer solchen Auseinandersetzung nahm auch eine ältere Frau teil, eine Kommunistin aus einer kommunistischen jüdischen Familie. Sie hatte während des Krieges zwei Kinder verloren, ihre in Polen lebenden Angehörigen wurden umgebracht. Sie rief mit lauter Stimme: "Wie können wir denn Stalin nicht unterstützen? Er hat doch den Sozialismus aufgebaut, den Faschismus zerschlagen. Stalin, der alle unsere Hoffnungen verkörperte!"

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Kobo – eBooks – Theravada Buddhism

What is Theravada Buddhism?
Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion

Theravada (pronounced — more or less — „terra-VAH-dah“), the „Doctrine of the Elders,“ is the school of Buddhism that draws its scriptural inspiration from the Tipitaka, or Pali canon, which scholars generally agree contains the earliest surviving record of the Buddha’s teachings.1 For many centuries, Theravada has been the predominant religion of continental Southeast Asia (Thailand, Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia, and Laos) and Sri Lanka. Today Theravada Buddhists number well over 100 million worldwide.2 In recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West.

Many Buddhisms, One Dhamma-vinaya

The Buddha — the „Awakened One“ — called the religion he founded Dhamma-vinaya — „the doctrine and discipline.“ To provide a social structure supportive of the practice of Dhamma-vinaya (or Dhamma for short [Sanskrit: Dharma]), and to preserve these teachings for posterity, the Buddha established the order of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns) — the Sangha — which continues to this day to pass his teachings on to subsequent generations of laypeople and monastics, alike.

As the Dhamma continued its spread across India after the Buddha’s passing, differing interpretations of the original teachings arose, which led to schisms within the Sangha and the emergence of as many as eighteen distinct sects of Buddhism.3 One of these schools eventually gave rise to a reform movement that called itself Mahayana (the „Greater Vehicle“)4 and that referred to the other schools disparagingly as Hinayana (the „Lesser Vehicle“). What we call Theravada today is the sole survivor of those early non-Mahayana schools.5 To avoid the pejorative tone implied by the terms Hinayana and Mahayana, it is common today to use more neutral language to distinguish between these two main branches of Buddhism. Because Theravada historically dominated southern Asia, it is sometimes called „Southern“ Buddhism, while Mahayana, which migrated northwards from India into China, Tibet, Japan, and Korea, is known as „Northern“ Buddhism.6
Pali: The Language of Theravada Buddhism

The language of the Theravada canonical texts is Pali (lit., „text“), which is based on a dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan that was probably spoken in central India during the Buddha’s time.7 Ven. Ananda, the Buddha’s cousin and close personal attendant, committed the Buddha’s sermons (suttas) to memory and thus became a living repository of these teachings.8 Shortly after the Buddha’s death (ca. 480 BCE), five hundred of the most senior monks — including Ananda — convened to recite and verify all the sermons they had heard during the Buddha’s forty-five year teaching career.9 Most of these sermons therefore begin with the disclaimer, „Evam me sutam“ — „Thus have I heard.“

After the Buddha’s death the teachings continued to be passed down orally within the monastic community, in keeping with an Indian oral tradition that long predated the Buddha.10 By 250 BCE the Sangha had systematically arranged and compiled these teachings into three divisions: the Vinaya Pitaka (the „basket of discipline“ — the texts concerning the rules and customs of the Sangha), the Sutta Pitaka (the „basket of discourses“ — the sermons and utterances by the Buddha and his close disciples), and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the „basket of special/higher doctrine“ — a detailed psycho-philosophical analysis of the Dhamma). Together these three are known as the Tipitaka, the „three baskets.“ In the third century BCE Sri Lankan monks began compiling a series of exhaustive commentaries to the Tipitaka; these were subsequently collated and translated into Pali beginning in the fifth century CE. The Tipitaka plus the post-canonical texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada literature.

Pali was originally a spoken language with no alphabet of its own. It wasn’t until about 100 BCE that the Tipitaka was first fixed in writing, by Sri Lankan scribe-monks,11 who wrote the Pali phonetically in a form of early Brahmi script.12 Since then the Tipitaka has been transliterated into many different scripts (Devanagari, Thai, Burmese, Roman, Cyrillic, to name a few). Although English translations of the most popular Tipitaka texts abound, many students of Theravada find that learning the Pali language — even just a little bit here and there — greatly deepens their understanding and appreciation of the Buddha’s teachings.

No one can prove that the Tipitaka contains any of the words actually uttered by the historical Buddha. Practicing Buddhists have never found this problematic. Unlike the scriptures of many of the world’s great religions, the Tipitaka is not regarded as gospel, as an unassailable statement of divine truth, revealed by a prophet, to be accepted purely on faith. Instead, its teachings are meant to be assessed firsthand, to be put into practice in one’s life so that one can find out for oneself if they do, in fact, yield the promised results. It is the truth towards which the words in the Tipitaka point that ultimately matters, not the words themselves. Although scholars will continue to debate the authorship of passages from the Tipitaka for years to come (and thus miss the point of these teachings entirely), the Tipitaka will quietly continue to serve — as it has for centuries — as an indispensable guide for millions of followers in their quest for Awakening.
A Brief Summary of the Buddha’s Teachings
The Four Noble Truths

Shortly after his Awakening, the Buddha delivered his first sermon, in which he laid out the essential framework upon which all his later teachings were based. This framework consists of the Four Noble Truths, four fundamental principles of nature (Dhamma) that emerged from the Buddha’s radically honest and penetrating assessment of the human condition. He taught these truths not as metaphysical theories or as articles of faith, but as categories by which we should frame our direct experience in a way that conduces to Awakening:

1. Dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness, discontent, stress;
2. The cause of dukkha: the cause of this dissatisfaction is craving (tanha) for sensuality, for states of becoming, and states of no becoming;
3. The cessation of dukkha: the relinquishment of that craving;
4. The path of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha: the Noble Eightfold Path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

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